Users filter out a lot of the information that they receive, even when it could be important.
- Hick’s Law. More options lead to harder decisions.
- Confirmation Bias. People look for evidence that confirms what they think.
- Priming. Previous stimuli influence users' decisions.
- Cognitive Load. The total amount of mental effort that is required to complete a task.
- Anchoring Bias. Users rely heavily on the first piece of information they see.
- Nudge. Subtle hints can affect users' decisions.
- Progressive Disclosure. Users are less overwhelmed if they're exposed to complex features later.
- Fitt's Law. Large and close elements are easier to interact with.
- Attentional Bias. Users' thoughts filter what they pay attention to.
- Empathy Gap. People underestimate how much emotions influence user behaviors.
- Visual Anchors. Elements used to guide users' eyes.
- Von Restorff Effect. People remember more items that stand out.
- Visual Hierarchy. The order in which people perceive what they see.
- Selective Attention. People filter out things from their environment when in focus.
- Survivorship Bias. People neglect things that don't make it past a selection process.
- Sensory Adaptation. Users tune out the stuff they get repeatedly exposed to.
- Juxtaposition. Elements that are close and similar are perceived as a single unit.
- Signifiers. Elements that communicate what they will do.
- Contrast. Users' attention is drawn to higher visual weights.
- External Trigger. When the information on what to do next is within the prompt itself.
- Decoy Effect. Create a new option that's easy to discard.
- Center-stage Effect. People tend to choose the middle option in a set of items.
- Framing. The way information is presented affects how users make decisions.
- Law of Proximity. Elements close to each other are usually considered related.
- Tesler's Law. If you simplify too much, you'll transfer some complexity to the users.
- Spark Effect. Users are more likely to take action when the effort is small.
- Feedback Loop. When users take action, feedback communicates what happened.
- Expectations Bias. People tend to be influenced by their own expectations.
- Aesthetic-Usability Effect. People perceive designs with great aesthetics as easier to use.
When users try to give sense to information, they make stories and assumptions to fill the gaps.
- Social Proof. Users adapt their behaviors based on what others do.
- Scarcity. People value things more when they're in limited supply.
- Curiosity Gap. Users have a desire to seek out the missing information.
- Mental Model. Users have a preconceived opinion of how things work.
- Familiarity Bias. People prefer familiar experiences.
- Halo Effect. People judge things (or people) based on their feelings towards one trait.
- Miller’s Law. Users can only keep 5±2 items in their working memory.
- Unit Bias. One unit of something feels like the optimal amount.
- Flow State. Being fully immersed and focused on a task.
- Skeuomorphism. Users adapt more easily to things that look like real-world objects.
- Reciprocity. People feel the need to reciprocate when they receive something.
- Authority Bias. Users attribute more importance to the opinion of an authority figure.
- Pseudo-Set Framing. Tasks that are part of a group are more tempting to complete.
- Variable Reward. People enjoy rewards, especially unexpected ones.
- Group Attractiveness Effect. Individual items seem more attractive when presented in a group.
- Curse of Knowledge. Not realizing that people don't have the same level of knowledge.
- Aha! moment. When new users first realize the value of your product.
- Self-Initiated Triggers. Users are more likely to interact with prompts they set up for themselves.
- Survey Bias. Users tend to skew survey answers towards what's socially acceptable.
- Cognitive Dissonance. It's painful to hold to opposing ideas in our mind.
- Goal Gradient Effect. Motivation increases as users get closer to their goal.
- Feedforward. When users know what to expect before they take action.
- Occam’s Razor. Simple solutions are often better than the more complex ones.
- Noble Edge Effect. Users tend to prefer socially responsible companies.
- Hindsight Bias. People overestimate their ability to predict outcomes after the fact.
- Law of Similarity. Users perceive a relationship between elements that look similar.
- Law of Prägnanz. Users interpret ambiguous images in a simpler and more complete form.
- Spotlight Effect. People tend to believe they are being noticed more than they really are.
- Fresh Start Effect. Users are more likely to take action if there's a feeling of new beginnings.
Users are busy so they look for shortcuts and jump to conclusions quickly.
- Labor Illusion. People value things more when they see the work behind them.
- Default Bias. Users tend not to change an established behavior.
- Investment Loops. When users invest themselves, they're more likely to come back.
- Loss Aversion. People prefer to avoid losses more than earning equivalent gains.
- Commitment & Consistency. Users tend to be consistent with their previous actions.
- Sunk Cost Effect. Users are reluctant to pull out of something they're invested in.
- Decision Fatigue. Making a lot of decisions lowers users' ability to make rational ones.
- Reactance. Users are less likely to adopt a behavior when they feel threatened.
- Observer-Expectancy Effect. When researchers' biases influence the participants of an experiment.
- Weber's Law. Users adapt better to small incremental changes.
- Law of the Instrument. If all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail.
- Temptation Coupling. Hard tasks are less scary when coupled with something users desire.
- Parkinson’s Law. The time required to complete a task will take as much time as allowed.
- Dunning-Kruger Effect. People tend to overestimate their skills when they don't know much.
- Affect Heuristic. People's current emotions cloud and influence their judgment.
- Hyperbolic Discounting. People tend to prioritize immediate benefits over bigger future gains.
- Cashless Effect. People spend more when they can't actually see the money.
- Self-serving bias. People take credit for positive events and blame others if negative.
- Pareto Principle. Roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.
- Discoverability. The ease with which users can discover your features.
- Backfire Effect. When people's convictions are challenged, their beliefs get stronger.
- False Consensus Effect. People overestimate how much other people agree with them.
- Barnum-Forer Effect. Some people believe in astrology and fortune-telling.
- IKEA Effect. When users partially create something, they value it way more.
- Planning Fallacy. People tend to underestimate how much time a task will take.
Users try to remember what's most important, but their brain prefers some elements over others.
- Provide Exit Points. Invite users to leave your app at the right moment.
- Peak-End Rule. People judge an experience by its peak and how it ends.
- Sensory Appeal. Users engage more with things appealing to multiple senses.
- Zeigarnik Effect. People remember incomplete tasks better than completed ones.
- Endowment Effect. Users value something more if they feel it's theirs.
- Chunking. People remember grouped information better.
- Picture Superiority Effect. People remember pictures better than words.
- Method of Loci. People remember things more when they're associated with a location.
- Shaping. Incrementally reinforcing actions to get closer to a target behavior.
- Delighters. People remember more unexpected and playful pleasures.
- Internal Trigger. When users are prompted to take action based on a memory.
- Recognition Over Recall. It's easier to recognize things than recall them from memory.
- Storytelling Effect. People remember stories better than facts alone.
- Negativity Bias. Users recall negative events more than positive ones.
- Availability Heuristic. Users favor recent and available information over past information.
- Spacing Effect. People learn more effectively when study sessions are spaced out.
- Serial Position Effect. It's easier for users to recall the first and last items of a list.